Newly discovered lipids prevent cell death and have therapeutic potential



Scientists at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, have discovered a new lipid called PI (18: 1/18: 1) that limits the activation of cell death by suppressing stress, and researchers have found its potential in treatment. Emphasizes its use.

“There is a clear connection [for PI(18:1/18:1)] This opens up new therapeutic approaches, “says lead author Andreas Koeberle.

Cells in the body are stressed when they are damaged, old, infected, or malfunction.

When cells enter stress mode, they are activated Programmed cell deathAn important route to kill cells to maintain an individual’s overall health.

One of the enzymes that regulates the stress pathway is a protein called SCD1 that converts saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids, thus preventing the stress caused by high concentrations of saturated fat.

This process is beneficial to the health of the organism, but it can be dangerous if carried out excessively. Previous research Shows that SCD1 inhibits stress response and cell death Other studies We are observing their involvement in promoting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Although enzymes are known to perform a myriad of functions in the body, SCD1 appears to be a promising target for the treatment of stress and cancer disorders, but researchers have found that direct action on enzymes can have serious side effects. I was worried that it could cause it. Not fully understood yet.

but, the study Researchers have made it possible to trace the stress-suppressing function of SCD1 to the indirect product lipid PI (18: 1/18: 1). The lipid PI (18: 1/18: 1) is mainly on the cell surface and is composed of fatty acids produced by SCD1.

When tested on human immune cells, researchers found that PI (18: 1/18: 1) activated cell proliferation and programmed cell death early in the response, even when SCD1 was completely suppressed. We have discovered that the stress response can be reduced by stopping the cell death.

“Of particular interest is that stress-related processes such as the aging process, resistance to chemotherapy, and tumor development all affect the amount of PI (18: 1/18: 1) in the affected tissue. “Koeble said.

Researchers believe that this discovery has potential for future treatments. Lipids can be specifically administered or inhibited depending on the required conditions so that the disease can be controlled without disturbing the full function of the enzyme SCD1.

Nevertheless, the full range of functions of PI (18: 1/18: 1) must first be thoroughly studied and understood before it becomes an available treatment option.

“This study deciphered a very basic process,” says Koeble. “This is an important starting point and sets a new direction for further research.”

This study was published on May 27, 2022 in Nature Communications, an open access peer-reviewed journal.

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