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White mobs rioted in Washington in 1848, defending slave owners’ rights after 76 black slaves failed to mass escape on a boat

A lithograph of the abolitionist of the slave trade in Washington, DC, against the backdrop of the US Capitol. Library of Congress In the summer of 2020, the United States was not the first to see protests and violence against the treatment of African Americans. A report on the capture of pearls in the Daily Union newspaper of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC, April 19, 1848. Long before the Black Lives Matter demonstrations and long before the procession of the citizenship era, the racist struggle upset the country. capital. However, these riots in Washington, DC were triggered by slavery mobs. In the spring of 1848, the conspirators organized one of the greatest escapes from slavery in US history. In doing so, they created a crisis involving abolitionists, white supremacists, the press, and even the president. Daniel Bell, a free black man in Washington, wanted to free his enslaved wife, children, and grandchildren. Citing a promise of freedom from their former owner, he tried to do so through court but failed. So he started planning an escape. The lawyer he consulted knew of others who were eager to escape the life of binding. He and Bell decided to help them all. They approached Daniel Drayton. As the captain, he was free to carry a small group of fugitives. He agreed to hire a ship for this larger plan for $ 100. Drayton then paid $ 100 to fellow captain Edward Sayers to charter the schooner ship Parl. On the night of April 15, the pearl left Washington. 76 black men, women and children who quietly left the local farm hid under the deck. Drayton and Sayers steered the ship towards the Potomac River. They headed to Philadelphia, where slavery was illegal. The fugitive did not go far. The owners soon realized their absence and formed a group to find them. Upon entering the Chesapeake Bay on April 17, a group of steamships overtook and commanded the pearls. The next day, the fugitive and his white assailants marched in Washington and were imprisoned in a city prison. Furious at the challenge of social order by riot co-conspirators in the capital, a white Washington man wanted to punish someone. White supremacists opposed abolitionist reports as Drayton and Sayers were waiting for trial behind the bar. Opponents of slavery have published several newspapers promoting their cause. In Washington, Gamaliel Bailey Jr. founded the National Age in 1847. Bailey and his treatise opposed the attempt to escape, but supported the end of the slave trade and ultimately slavery itself. Thousands of people gathered outside the national office on the night of April 18th and 19th. They gave a speech and spread false rumors that journalists were involved in Pearl Escape. Protester leaders reportedly included a US government clerk. Soon the protesters became violent. They intended to throw a stone at the building on the first night and destroy it on the second night. However, both nights broke up when confronted with local police. Gamaliel Bailey Jr., an abolitionist newspaper. The press was attacked by a slavery mob. Mathew Brady, Photographer / History of Massachusetts / President of Wikipedia The crisis of intervention began with slavery. Of the more than 3 million African Americans in 1848, nearly 90% were detained in bondage. They lived and worked on a southern farm owned by the same white man who claimed to be their property. Every year, thousands of people fled for freedom. The country’s president, James K. Polk, defended slavery and thereby enriched himself. He enslaved more than 50 people on a cotton plantation in Mississippi. While editing his letter, those final volumes were just published, I often read his complaints about escaping from it. Like other slave owners, he relied on relatives and paid agents to capture, return, and physically punish the fugitives. President James K. Polk helped calm the riots. N. Currier, Lithograph / Library of Congress After the pearls escaped, Pork shared the mob’s belief in white supremacy and their resentment against enslavement. He also shared hostility towards reformist newspapers with abolitionists and blamed them in his diary for the entire case. “The anger committed by stealing and seducing slaves … created excitement and threatened violence in the abolitionist movement.” But by April 20, the president was worried about violence in Washington. Was there. The involvement of federal employees especially plagued him. He ordered them to “refrain from participating in all scenes of riots and violence” and threatened those who did not comply with the charges. Pork also instructed US Deputy Marshal Thomas Woodward to work with local law enforcement agencies to quell the riots. As Pork told his adviser, he intended to “exercise all the constitutional powers dressed by the president” to restore peace. done. When the mob reunited in national era on the night of the 20th, it was successfully countered by city and federal officials. About 200 rioters moved to Bailey’s house and threatened Tarring and feathering. But he managed to talk to them and applaud his speech from the previously hostile crowd. The violence is over. Following the capture of Pearl, this poster was created by the Washington, DC government to warn white citizens fearing slave rebellion not to riot or violence. Library of Congress / Wikipedia Losers and Winners Captain Drayton and Sayers suffered because of their efforts. Slaves remained imprisoned until President Millard Fillmore pardoned them in 1852 after being convicted of illegally transporting them. Abolitionists bought very little of their freedom, but almost all returned to slavery. Many were sold farther south than ever from the dream of freedom. Aside from broken windows, it appeared intact during the national era. City and federal officials protected the press’s freedom to print unpopular views by ending the riots. The riots have come out well. No one was charged with the crime. Perhaps pork has benefited the most. He was praised for avoiding the big bloodshed of the watch and working with the local police. Yet he never questioned the mob’s dissatisfaction or the racist society they advocated. [Get the best of The Conversation, every weekend. Sign up for our weekly newsletter.]This article has been republished by The Conversation, a non-profit news site aimed at sharing ideas from academic experts. It was written by Michael David Cohen of American University. Read more: John Brown was a violent Crusaders, but black Americans fled slaves in front of a sanctuary city that paved the moral path that cautious Lincoln followed to end slavery. The methods of protection are as follows: Funded by the author and his current project, Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore Correspondence, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the Summerlee Foundation, and the Watson-Brown Foundation. He was previously funded by the William G. Pomeroy Foundation, the Delaplane Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Tennessee History Commission. He is a member of the Documentary Editorial Association, the American Historical Association, the American Historical Association, and the Southern Historical Association.

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By Ana Banuelos

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