Why some Good Friday worship is controversial
People visiting the sculpture of Christ at the Church of Mary Magdalene in Santa Maria during Holy Week in Granada, Spain. Álex Cámara / Nur Photo via Getty Images Churches around the world are sometimes referred to as the three most important days of Holy Week, Maundy Thursday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Easter Sunday. Easter commemorates the basic belief of Christianity, the resurrection from the death of Christ. It is the earliest, most central, and older than Christmas of all Christian holidays. As a medieval Christian liturgical scholar, I know that historically the most controversial of these three holy days was the Good Friday service, which focused on the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. I am. Two parts of modern Good Friday worship can be implicitly misunderstood as anti-Semitic or racist. Both are derived from the Good Friday liturgy of the Middle Ages, which Catholics and several other Christian churches continue to use in modified form today. These are solemn speeches and worship of the cross. Prayer and Anti-Semitism A solemn speech is a formal prayer provided by the community gathered for the wider church, for example, for the Pope. These speeches also include other prayers for members of different religions and other needs of the world. One of these prayers is offered “for the Jews.” For centuries, this prayer was expressed in a way that hinted at anti-Semitic meaning, calling the Jews “perfidis,” which means “danger” or “dishonest.” However, the Catholic Church has undergone significant changes in the 20th century. In 1959, Pope John XXIII completely removed the word “perfidis” from the Latin prayers of the Latin Roman Misa liturgical book. This Missal is an official liturgical book that includes readings and prayers to celebrate Mass and Holy Week, and is used by Catholics around the world. However, when the next edition of the Latin Roman Missal Scriptures was published in 1962, the prayer texts still referred to the Jewish “conversion” and their “blindness.” The Second Vatican Council, or the Second Vatican Council, is the main conference of all Catholic bishops around the world, held between 1962 and 1965, and reforms Catholic life and practice in various ways. Mandatory. Open discussions with members of other Christian denominations and other non-Christian religions were encouraged, and the Vatican Commission on Catholic Interactions with Jews was established in the early 1970s. The Second Vatican Council also called for a renewal of Catholic worship. The revised liturgy was to be celebrated not only in Latin, but also in local languages, including English. The first British Roman Misa liturgical book was published in 1974. Today, these post-Vatican religious ceremonies are known as the “normal form” of Roman liturgy. The completely rewritten prayer text reflects a new understanding of the Catholic-Jewish relationship mandated by the Second Vatican Council and supported by decades of interreligious dialogue. For example, in 2015 the Vatican Commission clarified the relationship between Catholicism and Judaism as one of the “rich complements”, put an end to the systematic efforts to convert Jews, and strengthened anti-Semitism. Published a document to blame. But another important development happened in 2007. More than 40 years after the Second Vatican Council, Pope Benedict XVI allowed widespread use of the 1962 Mass before the Second Vatican Council, known as the “abnormal form.” Initially, this pre-Second Vatican Council missile retained the potentially offensive wording of prayer for the Jews. Prayer was quickly paraphrased, but still demands that their hearts be “illuminated” in order to “acknowledge Jesus Christ.” Although the extraordinary form is used only by a small group of traditionalist Catholics, this prayer text continues to plague many. In 2020, Pope Francis repeated a fierce Catholic refusal to anti-Semitism to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Oswiecim’s concentration camps. The Pope has not revoked the use of a special form, but in 2020 he ordered a review of its use by investigating the Catholic bishops of the world. The Cross and its Symbols The worship of the cross is celebrated on Good Friday at the Cathedral of San Giusto in Italy. Jacopo Landi / NurPhoto via Getty Images There was a similar sensibility for another part of the Catholic Good Friday tradition: the ritual worship of the cross. The earliest evidence of the Good Friday procession by the general public for worshiping the cross on Good Friday comes from Jerusalem in the 4th century. Catholics worshiped what was believed to be part of the actual wooden cross used to crucify Jesus and proceeded one by one to honor it with a devout touch or kiss. It was. This highly sacred cross-fragment is in procession in case someone might try to chew the sliver for himself, as rumored to have happened during a Good Friday service in the past. It was strictly protected by the priests. During the Middle Ages, this ritual of worship, elaborately crafted by additional prayers and chanting, spread throughout Western Europe. Blessed by priests and bishops, ordinary wooden crosses and crosses depicting Christ nailed to the cross replaced the fragments of the “true cross” itself. Catholics worshiped the cross on both Good Friday and other public holidays. In this part of the Good Friday liturgy, the controversy revolves around the physical symbol of the cross and the layers of meaning it has conveyed in the past and today. Ultimately, for Catholics and other Christians, it represents Christ’s selfless sacrifice of his life to save others. However, historically, the cross has also been raised in Western Christianity as a rally of violence against groups considered by the Church and secular authorities to threaten the security of Christians and the security of Christian society. From the late 11th to the 13th centuries, soldiers “take the cross”, whether these enemies are Western Christian heretics, Jewish communities, Muslim troops, or the Greek Orthodox Byzantine Empire. Joined the Crusaders against the perceived threat of reality. Other religious wars of the 14th and 16th centuries continued in this “crusade” spirit. Since the 19th century, Americans and other English-speaking people have used the term “crusade” for all efforts to promote certain ideas and movements, often those based on moral ideals. Examples of the United States include the 19th century abolitionist movement and the 20th century civil rights movement. But today, certain “ideals” are rejected by a wider culture. The modern alt-right group uses what is called the “Deus vult” cross. The word “Deus vult” means “God’s will”, a rally cry from Muslims to the medieval Christian army trying to rule the sanctuary. These groups today see themselves as a modern crusade fighting Islam. Some white supremacist groups use the cross version as a symbol of opposition or provocation. The Celtic cross, which is a compact cross in a circle, is a common example. And a full-scale wooden cross was carried by at least one protester during the January Parliamentary rebellion. Prayer and symbols have the power to connect people with a common purpose and identity. But without understanding their context, it is very easy to manipulate them to support outdated or limited political and social agendas. [Deep knowledge, daily. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter.]This article has been republished by The Conversation, a non-profit news site aimed at sharing ideas from academic experts. It was written by Joan M. Pierce, University of the Holy Cross. Read more: What can you do with unwanted holy cards and grandma’s religious statues? The Catholic opinion of Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine highlights the debate between hardliners about abortion and others in the church. In addition, we do not disclose affiliations related to anything other than academic appointments.