uncontrolled bleeding after use Synthetic cannabis-based products
– Including fake marijuana, spices and K2, including rodenticide brodifacoum in March and April 2018. By the end of July 2021, these banned products will still 10 States and the District of Columbia
The result was hundreds of severe bleedings and several deaths.
was due to the use of illegal drugs Estimated overdose deaths worldwide in 2017 at 166,613The increased risk of illness and injury associated with illicit drug use Another estimated 585,348 premature deathsAnd it is impossible to guess whether people were harmed by the drug itself or by the myriad impurities added to it.
I clinical pharmacologist and guest editor special supplement In the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology on Commonly Abused Substances.Me too investigated the study About what is known about illegal drug contamination in 2021. The findings are clear. Adulterating or adulterating illicit drugs is a long-standing and widespread practice with harmful consequences.
You rarely get what you pay for
Pharmaceutical company Including Other Ingredients for Several Reasonsreducing costs by bulking up products with cheaper non-active ingredients, masking lower-quality products by adding other drugs, or producing specific effects by mimicking the desired effect of the drug itself. Do you want to achieve
Before the 2000s, drugs like cocaine and heroin were “cut” or diluted. Inactive ingredients such as sugar Expand supply, increase profit. Since then, purchasers of cocaine and heroin products have frequently received adulterated cocktails that mimic the intended effects of the products or mask the side effects of poor quality.
For example, MDMA, the active ingredient in Ecstasy, is what produces the product’s intended effects. But ecstasy from a drug attack at a rave in 2004, a study evaluating his tablet found that 20% of products did not contain MDMA, and dosages varied widely in the products taken.cheap and dangerous stimulants and hallucinogens favorite synthetic bath salt and LSD are frequently replaced with MDMA without warning the purchaser.
A drug added to enhance its effect
Over 70% of cocaine products include Levamisole, a drug for worm infections that increases the intensity and duration of the stimulant effect.It was Banned in the US in 1999 because Inhibits the production of red blood cells and white blood cells It increases the risk of life-threatening infections and anemia. These side effects were seen at doses above 150 milligrams, 35% of cocaine products seized in the US exceed that level.
Other additives are commonly added to cocaine to enhance its effects. aminorexwas a stimulant and appetite suppressant Withdrawn by the FDA in 1972 After it caused some pulmonary hypertension cases of heart failure and death. Similarly, caffeine teeth Add frequently Boost your adrenaline rush. While it is safe when taken alone in low doses, high doses of caffeine in combination with other stimulants can seizures and heart rhythm problems.
About the heroine veterinary anesthetic xylazine It is commonly added to enhance the relaxing effect.When Fentanyl is increasingly used as an alternativeBecause it’s fentanyl 50 times stronger A smaller amount of the total product than heroin can produce similar effects.
Conceals contamination and poor manufacturing quality
Manufacturers also add impurities to compensate for lost efficacy due to contamination. lidocaine and benzocaine It is added to adulterated products to replicate the tingling sensation in the gums and tongue that drug dealers look for to assess the quality of cocaine. Although these anesthetics are FDA-approved, incorrect doses can cause seizures and heart rhythm problems.
A similar technique is used for heroin.Manufacturers commonly add Malaria drug quinine It mimics the bitter taste of heroin and the initial drop in blood pressure upon administration.
When heroin production is low, many impurities are produced, severe chills and pain at the injection siteTo avoid these side effects, manufacturers frequently add antihistamines such as Benadryl and pain relievers such as Tylenol. It may be used instead.
The double-edged sword of field testing
Foreign material contamination can cause dangerous side effects. However, because additives are not disclosed to purchasers and most are banned by the FDA, clinicians may not be aware or even suspect that contaminants are the cause of patient symptoms. maybe.
Consumer-based methods of testing for drug impurities may be helpful but not foolproof. 2010s Music Festival Volunteer Recruitment MDMA purity test So participants could decide whether or not to use the drugs they had. If they were injured, attendees were able to alert paramedics of any contaminants they might have been exposed to. It was overlooked in test kits and only found in advanced laboratory equipment after a few days.
With illegal drugs, the difference between what you believe you are buying and what is actually in the product can be the difference between life and death. If you are struggling with drug addiction, resource is available Helps manage addiction and achieve abstinence.
This article is reprinted from conversation, is a non-profit news site dedicated to sharing ideas from academic experts. Like this article? Subscribe to our weekly newsletter.
It was written by: C. Michael White, University of Connecticut.
C. Michael White does not work for, consult with, own shares in, or receive funding from any company or organization that benefits from this article.