How World War I led the century of oil
The Navy helped solidify the strategic position of oil by switching from coal to oil years before the United States entered World War I. Navy History and Heritage Command On July 7, 1919, a group of U.S. military members dedicated the Zero Milestone, just south of the White House lawn in Washington, DC, where all road distances in the country are measured. It was. The next morning, they helped define the future of the country. Instead of exploration rockets and deep-sea submarines, these explorers embarked on 42 trucks, 5 passenger cars, various motorcycles, ambulances, tank trucks, mobile field kitchens, mobile repair shops, and Signal Corps search light trucks. It was. During the first three days of driving, they managed over five miles per hour. This was the most annoying, as their goal was to drive all over the United States and investigate the condition of American roads. It was Captain Dwight D. Eisenhower of the United States Army who participated in this exploration party. He played an important role in much of the history of the United States in the 20th century, but his passion for roads may have had the greatest impact on the front lines of the country. This trek literally and figuratively captured the country and young soldiers at a crossroads. Returning from World War I, IKEA enjoyed the idea of leaving the military and accepting civilian work. His decision to stay proved to be extremely important to the country. By the end of the first half of the century, the road landscape transformed by the interstate highway system during the presidency helped rebuild the lives of the country and its inhabitants. But for the pond, the road represented not only domestic development but also national security. By the early 1900s, it became clear to many managers that oil was a strategic resource for the country’s present and future. At the beginning of World War I, the world was over-oiled, with few practical uses other than kerosene for lighting. At the end of the war, developed countries had no doubt that their future position in the world was based on access to oil. World War I introduced modern ideas and technologies to the world of the 19th century, many of which required cheap crude oil. Oil drilling in Beaumont, Texas in 1901. The United States supplied crude oil to its allies during World War I and relied on domestic production after its entry. AP Photo Motors and National Security During and after World War I, there were dramatic changes in energy production, with a major shift from wood and hydropower to fossil fuels, coal, and ultimately oil. Also, compared to coal, petroleum is more flexible when used in vehicles and ships because it is easier to transport and can be used in different types of vehicles. It itself represents a new type of weapon and basic strategic benefits. Within decades of this energy shift, the acquisition of oil took on the spirit of an international arms race. More importantly, international oil harvesters around the world have gained a level of importance unknown to other industries and have earned the comprehensive name “Big Oil”. By the 1920s, big oil products were useless only decades ago, but became the lifeblood of national security in the United States and Great Britain. And since the beginning of this transition, the vast reserves held in the United States have shown a strategic advantage with potential for the last generation. Domestic oil production in the United States was as impressive as it was from 1900 to 1920, but the European powers of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and France used companies such as Shell and British Oil to develop oil. Since it started, a true revolution took place in the international scene. Occurred. During this period of colonialism, countries applied ancient methods of economic development by securing oil in Mexico, the Black Sea region, and ultimately in the developing regions of the world, including the Middle East. Of course, redrawing the world’s geography based on resource supplies (gold, rubber, and even human labor and slavery) was nothing new. Doing so, especially for energy sources, was a remarkable change. Crude oil proves on the battlefield that “World War I was a war.” Historian Daniel Yergin wrote: And these machines were powered by oil. When the war broke out, military strategy was organized around horses and other animals. Such a primitive mode dominated the battle in this “transient conflict”, as there is one horse in the field for every three men. During the war, the energy shift shifted from horsepower to petrol-powered trucks and tanks, and of course, oil-burning ships and planes. With innovation, these new technologies were immediately put into action on the horrific battlefields of World War I. For example, it was the British who tried to overcome the stagnation of trench warfare by devising an armored vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine. Under the code name “Tank”, this vehicle was first used in the Battle of the Somme in 1916. In addition, the British expeditionary force to France in 1914 was supported by a fleet of 827 cars and 15 motorcycles. By the end of the war, the British had 56,000 trucks, 23,000 cars and 34,000 motorcycles. These gas-powered vehicles provided great flexibility on the battlefield. A government airplane manufactured by the Dayton-Wright Race Company in 1918. The National Archives of Japan Strategic changes were more apparent in the air and sea. By 1915, Britain had built 250 planes. In this era, such as Red Baron, primitive planes often required pilots to pack his own sidearms and use them to fire at his enemies. However, more often, flight equipment can be used to deliver explosives in episodes of tactical bombing. German pilots have applied this new strategy to the heavy bombing of Britain by Zeppelin and subsequent aircraft. During the course of the war, the use of aircraft expanded significantly. UK, 55,000 aircraft. France, 68,0000 aircraft; Italy, 20,000; United States, 15,000; and Germany, 48,000. These new uses have made wartime oil supply an important strategic military issue. The Royal Dutch / Shell provided much of the crude oil supply for the war. In addition, Britain has expanded even deeper in the Middle East. Britain in particular soon became dependent on the Abadan refinery in Persia, and when Turkey entered the war as a partner with Germany in 1915, British soldiers protected Turkey from the invasion of Turkey. Oil was the weapon of mind for all when the Allies expanded to include the United States in 1917. The Inter-Allied Petroleum Conference was created to pool, coordinate, and control the movement of all oil supplies and tankers. US entry into the war required this organization as it has so far supplied a very large part of the Allied efforts. Indeed, as a producer of nearly 70% of the world’s oil supply, crude oil may have been the United States’ greatest weapon in the Battle of World War I. President Woodrow Wilson has appointed the first US energy emperor to work closely with the leaders of US companies. Infrastructure as a Road to National Power When young Eisenhower embarked on post-war trekking, he considered the party’s progress in the first two days to be “not very good”, “even the slowest military train”. .. The roads they crossed the United States “doesn’t exist on average,” he said. He continued. “At one point, a heavy truck had to break through the surface of the road and tow one by one with a caterpillar tractor. One day, counting 60, 70, or 100 miles, doing three or four miles. The Eisenhower party completed the frontier trekking and arrived in San Francisco, California on September 6, 1919. Of course, the most obvious impact of Eisenhower’s trekking was the need for roads. However, as was the case in many developed countries, no symbolic proposal was made that transportation and oil issues now require US military involvement. Focusing on roads, and later on Ike’s interstate highway system in particular, has revolutionized the United States. However, Eisenhower overlooked the fundamental changes he participated in. The use of oil by his country and others, whether through road construction initiatives or through international diplomacy, has now been a dependency on the stability and security of the country. Eisenhower served in the tank corps until 1922. Eisenhower Presidential Library, ARC 876971 Looking through this historical lens, the oil path essential to human life does not begin with the ability to propel the Model T or shape the plastic Tupperware bowl. The obligation to maintain an oil supply begins with the defense needs of each country. Oil use ultimately simplified consumers’ lives in various ways, but military oil use fell into a completely different category. Insufficient supply will undermine the country’s most basic protections. After World War I in 1919, Eisenhower and his team thought that only the need for roads was determined. “Old convoy,” he explained. But at the same time, they had declared a political commitment by the United States, and thanks to its enormous domestic readiness, the United States was lagging behind in achieving this. But after the “war to end all wars”, it was a commitment already made by other countries, especially Germany and Britain, each lacking an essential supply of crude oil. This article has been republished by The Conversation, a dedicated non-profit news site. To share ideas from academic experts. Read more: Exxon’s Rex Tillerson and who has politicized the rise of big oil in American politics and climate change? Why Russia Gives Up Alaska, America’s Gateway to Arctic Brian C, from a company or organization that benefits from this article and does not disclose relevant alliances beyond academic appointments Hmm.