Teenager Darnera Frazier, who videotaped George Floyd’s death, testified at Derek Chauvin’s trial.


Derek Chauvin’s trial begins with George Floyd’s murder: five important readings on police violence against black men

Floyd’s nephew Brandon Williams (center) and Rev. Al Sharpton (left) outside the tightly guarded Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. March 29, 2021, before the murder trial of officer Derek Chauvin begins. / Getty Images A trial of former police officer Derek Chauvin in the murder of George Floyd is underway in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Chauvin, a white man, has been charged with two, three, and manslaughter charges associated with the death of George Floyd, a black man at the time of his arrest in May last year. For 8 minutes and 46 seconds, Floyd was handcuffed, lay down on the pavement, and repeatedly said he couldn’t breathe while other police officers were staring at him. Floyd’s anguished death video quickly became viral, causing a wave of unprecedented massive protests last summer against police violence and racism. Chauvin’s murder trial is expected to last up to four weeks. These five stories provide expert analysis and important background on police violence, Derek Chauvin records, and racism in US law enforcement agencies. 1. Police violence is the number one cause of death for black men According to Fatal Encounters, the latest archive of police killings, US police have killed 1,000 to 1,200 people annually since 2000. According to a study by Frank Edwards of the Rutgers Criminal Justice School in Newark, the victims are very likely to be blacks, men, and young. Protesters in Kenosha, Wisconsin. After another 2020 shooting of a black man, Jacob Blake. Brandon Bell / Getty Images In 2019, Edwards and two co-authors analyze Fatal Encounters data to assess how the risk of police death varies by age, gender, race, and ethnicity. did. They found that in a particular year “police are responsible for a very small proportion of all deaths” but “responsible for a significant proportion of all deaths of young people”. Police brutality was the sixth leading cause of death among young men in the United States in 2019, following accidents, suicide, murder, heart disease and cancer. The risk is especially pronounced for colored young men, especially young black men. “One in 1,000 black men and boys were killed by police,” Edwards wrote. In contrast, the typical US male population is killed by police at a rate of 0.52 per 1,000. This is about half the frequency. 2. Chauvin has a track record of abuse Many police officers who kill civilians have a history of violence or illegal activity, including Chauvin. In an article on police violence written after George Floyd’s murder, criminal justice scholar Jill McCorkel said that Derek Chauvin was “subject to at least 18 individual misconduct complaints, and two more. I was involved in the shooting case. ” During a roadside stop in 2006, Chauvin was one of six police officers who fired 43 bullets at a truck driven by a man seeking cross-examination for domestic violence. Wayne Reyes, the man who said police pointed his sword-off shotgun at them, died. The Minnesota grand jury did not prosecute officers. According to McCorkel, less than one-twelfth of police complaints nationwide lead to disciplinary action of all kinds. 3. Bad police interactions hurt black families These incidents-even when overpowered police officers were dismissed, as Chauvin was after the killing of George Floyd-very much. Frequently, for years-causing emotional sacrifices to the black community. A 2020 Gallup survey reported that one in four black men between the ages of 18 and 34 was mistreated by police during the last month. Racist and inequality researchers Deadric T. Williams and Armon Perry analyzed data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, which surveyed nearly 5,000 families in US cities, and found that negative police interactions ” It has been found to have widespread impact on black families. “Fathers who reported experiencing police outages were more likely to report conflicts or lack of cooperation in their child’s relationship with the mother,” they wrote. Williams and Perry also reported “feelings of anxiety and excitement” for black mothers after their black father was stopped by police. It can “affect the way she sees relationships, leading to anger and frustration.” [Expertise in your inbox. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter and get expert takes on today’s news, every day.] 4. This is much less in Europe. According to a 2014 survey of European and US police by Ratgers researcher Paul Hirschfield, US police were 18 times more deadly than Danish police and 100 times more deadly than Finnish police. Annual deadly police shootings per million inhabitants as of 2014. The data is based on the latest available. United States: 2014; France: 1995-2000; Denmark: 1996-2006; Portugal: 1995-2005; Sweden: 1996-2006; Netherlands: 2013-2014; Norway: 1996-2006; Germany: 2012; Finland: 1996-2006; England and Norway: 2014. CCBY The main reason for this difference is the simple one Hirschfield wrote in an article explaining his findings: a gun. In most US states, “it’s easy for adults to buy a pistol,” Hirschfield wrote, so “American police are ready to expect a gun.” As a result, it can be easy to mistake a mobile phone or driver for a weapon. US law allows such mistakes relatively. If a police officer can prove that he has a “reasonable belief” that his life is at stake, he may be acquitted of killing an unarmed civilian. In contrast, most European countries recognize deadly power only when it is “absolutely necessary” to enforce the law. “The unfounded horror that former Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson, who shot and killed Michael Brown, was armed would not have exempted him in Europe,” Hirschfield wrote. 5. American Police Have Racist Roots Racism is America, as criminal justice researcher Connie Hasset Walker wrote in June 2020, long before modern gun law. Deeply penetrated the police. In the South, the first law enforcement agency organized was a white slave patrol. “The first slave patrols took place in South Carolina in the early 1700s,” wrote Hasset Walker. By the end of the century, all slave states had them. Slave patrols could legally enter anyone’s home on the suspicion of protecting those who escaped bondage. Northern police did not originate from racial terrorism, but Hassetwalker still writes that they owed it. From New York City to Boston, early city police were “overwhelmingly white and male, with a focus on dealing with disabilities rather than crime,” Hasset Walker wrote. “Executives were expected to manage the” dangerous class, “including African Americans, immigrants, and the poor. This history remains a negative stereotype of dangerous black men today. As a result, people like George Floyd are more likely to be actively treated by police, which can have fatal consequences. This article has been republished by The Conversation, a non-profit news site aimed at sharing ideas from academic experts.Read more: Model minority myths are not the past hiding the racist and sexist violence experienced by Asian women: colonialism is rooted in the present