Biden has made the restoration of Iran’s nuclear agreement in 2015 a top foreign policy goal.
Trump withdrew from trading in May 2018, pushing tensions with Iran to historic heights.
Resurrection of the contract is difficult, but there are signs of progress in diplomatic negotiations in Vienna.
President Joe Biden has made the restoration of Iran’s nuclear agreement in 2015 a top foreign policy priority.
Reviving the contract proved to be complicated, but both insisted that the other make the first move. Iran said it would not return to compliance with the agreement until the United States lifted the sanctions, but the Biden administration claims that sanctions will not be relaxed until it shows that Tehran is in compliance with the agreement.
Iranian and US officials visited Vienna in early April to participate in indirect talks on the recovery of trade and contacted through a European intermediary.
The diplomats who attended the Vienna summit have made moderate progress so far. Two working groups have been set up with the aim of returning the parties to the 2015 agreement, and talks will continue until next week. The State Department also said the United States is ready to lift sanctions on Iran. “Inconsistent” With the 2015 agreement.
Since former President Donald Trump removed the United States from the deal almost three years ago, the Vienna talks represent the most important step in resurrecting the 2015 deal.
The agreement with Iran is the best diplomatic achievement of former President Barak Obama’s tenure, and recovering it will be a major foreign policy outcome for Biden, but since it came to fruition in 2015. It continues to be a diplomatic issue in Washington.
Trump controversially withdrew the United States from a groundbreaking agreement in May 2018.
The Trump administration then failed in trying to squeeze Iran to negotiate a stricter version of its deal with strict economic sanctions as part of its “maximum pressure” campaign. Trump’s approach to this issue has pushed tensions between Washington and Tehran to historic heights, raising concerns about the impending new war in the Middle East.
Trump’s unilateral decision to withdraw the United States from the JCPOA in May 2018 was also immediately criticized by US allies who have been scrambling to find diplomatic solutions since then.
Trump critics say his decision to abandon the deal unnecessarily Caused a global crisis and raised the prospect of war, While bringing Iran closer to the development of nuclear weapons.
Trump often describes the deal as “terrible,” and although there are many supporters of the deal, he is not the only one in this view.
To understand the nature of this transaction polarization and the challenges Biden faces in the struggle to recover it, here is a brief breakdown of the historical agreement and the arguments surrounding it.
Iran’s agreement explained
In July 2015, Iran and the six countries reached a historic agreement called the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). This is commonly known as the Iran Nuclear Agreement.
The six major countries involved in these negotiations with Iran are known as P5 + 1, which are the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (US, France, UK, China and Russia) and Germany. Represents.
The agreement, which was put together after two years of intense debate, aimed to limit Iran’s ability to develop nuclear weapons in exchange for lifting economic sanctions on Tehran.
As part of the deal, Iran has agreed to reduce the number of centrifuges (tubular machines that help enrich uranium) by two-thirds. It also agreed to reduce enriched uranium stockpiles by 98% and limit uranium enrichment to 3.67%.
In other words, Tehran has agreed to restrictions that allow it to have enough enriched uranium to sustain the country’s energy needs without having the ability to make nuclear bombs.
In addition, Iran has agreed to give access to inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations nuclear monitoring agency, to its nuclear facility, among other facilities. Before Trump decided to withdraw from the deal, and for a long time thereafter, the IAEA repeatedly discovered that Iran was in compliance with the terms of the agreement.
In January 2016, when the IAEA declared Iran alive to the end of the negotiations, All international sanctions on Iran have been lifted..
The controversy over the Iran agreement was explained
Iran and the United States Enemy for decades.. Both countries have a very complex history, including a CIA-organized coup in the 1950s, a pro-American doll prince overthrown by the Islamic Revolution in 1979, and the infamous hostage crisis at the US Embassy in Tehran following the uprising. There is. ..
The constant threat from Iranian leaders to Israel, America’s largest ally in the Middle East, and the chanting of “Death to America” on the streets of Iran have not helped the problem.
In this regard, there is a great deal of distrust of Iran in the United States (and vice versa), and Washington has long been afraid of what would happen if the Iranian administration developed nuclear weapons. Iran has made great strides in this regard by the 2010s, and the Obama administration has sought to coordinate the nuclear deal. When the final agreement was reached in 2015, it was widely celebrated as a major diplomatic achievement.
However, many (mainly conservative) leaders in Washington still felt that Iran’s nuclear deal was not sufficiently advanced to limit the country’s ability to develop nuclear weapons.
This is because it is included in the Iranian trade Sunset clause, Or part of a contract that eventually expires. Under this agreement, Iran’s centrifuge restrictions will be removed after 10 years (2025) and uranium enrichment restrictions will be removed after 5 years (2030). Therefore, some feared that if these restrictions expired, Iran could develop nuclear weapons rapidly.
“It is clear to me that Iran’s nuclear bomb cannot be prevented under the corruption and corrupt structure of the current agreement.” Trump said May 2018. “The deal with Iran is fundamentally flawed. We know exactly what will happen if we do nothing.”
In a broader sense, Trump, among others, argued that the deal was not sufficient to address Iran’s regional actions and missile programs.
The United States is also facing pressure from its top allies in the region to avoid engaging with Iran. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is also an opponent of this agreement, Prompted to oppose the recovery..
Saudi Arabia, a close U.S. security partner that Iran also sees as a threat, also criticized the agreement and brought it to the U.S. Talk to Gulf countries In every effort to revive the Accord.
Iran virtually abandoned its nuclear deal amid fear of war with the United States in early 2020
Tehran virtually abandoned the JCPOA after Trump ordered a drone strike in January 2020 to kill Iran’s highest general, Kasem Soleimani.
By November 2020, the United Nations nuclear watchdog said Iran’s reserves of low-enriched uranium were more than 12 times the limits set under the JCPOA.
For about a year after Trump’s controversial announcement, Iran continued to adhere to the deal. However, the Iranian government has begun to take a step out of the JCPOA in the summer of 2019.
Wendy Sherman, who was the chief negotiator of the Obama administration at the JCPOA in September 2019 and was appointed by Biden to act as Secretary of State Antony Blinken, said that Iran’s agreement was violated “Serious concern.”
“It’s all a concern because Iran is far from the framework that guarantees that it will not acquire nuclear weapons,” Sherman said. “Iran is not just being bold, it is left in several ways to take the action of not being pushed back. We are in a very, very difficult place.”
Over the past year or so, Iran has gradually taken more steps in breach of the agreement as part of its efforts to increase pressure on European leaders fighting to save the agreement.
Iranian officials in early April said Iran produced 55 kg of uranium Up to 20% enrichment-Much above the 2015 trading limits and approaching the weapons grade level (about 90%).
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