Uighurs are sentenced to death because China once banned OK books


Taipei, Taiwan (AP) — A man against a textbook partially drawn from a historic resistance movement that was once sanctioned last year as the Chinese government tightened control over the Uighur population. Was sentenced to death and three were sentenced to life imprisonment. Ruling Communist Party.

AP reviews of images and stories presented as problematic in state media documentaries, and interviews with people involved in textbook editing, showed that they were rooted in previously accepted stories. The two drawings are based on the movement of the 1940s that founded Mao Zedong. Communist country of 1949. Now that the party’s obligations have changed, the party has partially reinterpreted it with catastrophic consequences for individuals, while at the same time depriving students of easy access to parts of their heritage.

This is a less publicized chapter in the broad crackdown on Uighurs and other predominantly Islamic groups, encouraging the United States and others to perform. Diplomatic boycott Of the Beijing Olympics to be held on Friday. Foreign experts, governments and the media have recorded detention of an estimated 1 million people, demolition of mosques, forced sterilization and abortion. The Chinese government has denied human rights abuses and said it has taken steps to eliminate separatism and radicalism in the western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

The Attack on textbooks And the officials in charge of them show how far the Communist Party is trying to control and reshape the Uighur community. It comes from President Xi Jinping promoting more assimilation policies towards Tibetans, Mongolians, and other ethnic groups that reduce bilingual education in the name of national unity. Scholars and activists fear the disappearance of Uighur’s cultural history, which has been passed down through generations of stories of heroes and villains.

David Brophy, a Uighur nationalist historian at the University of Sydney, said: “The goal post has shifted and is now treated as a separatist propaganda, rather than seen as a place of negotiation and tension.”

Sattar Sawut, a Uighur official who heads the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Education Bureau Death sentence, The court announced in April last year and led a separatist group to create a textbook full of ethnic hatred, violence and religious extremism that caused people to commit violence in ethnic conflicts in 2009. Said. In many cases, good behavior led me to work in jail two years later.

Later, the details of the textbook were published in a documentary by CGTN, the overseas division of the state-run broadcaster CCTV, in a 10-minute segment called Hidden Threats in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. This included a camera confession by Sawut, who was sentenced to life imprisonment, and another former educator, Alimjan Memtimin.

The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government and CGTN did not answer written questions about the material.

Excerpts from textbooks are presented as evidence that Sout has guided others to incite hatred between Uighurs and the majority of Han Chinese in China.

One person points the pistol at another. This image is flashed in a camera statement by Memtimin, who said, “I want to instigate ethnic hatred and such thoughts.”

But both men in the drawing are Uighurs. One named Jennie Batur is holding a gun at a traitor sent to assassinate him. Navijan Tursun, a Uighur-American historian and senior editor of Radio Free Asia, told Batur in the 1940s that Batur was against China’s then-dominant nationalist party over oppression and discrimination against ethnic groups. He said he was considered an uprising “hero of the people.”

The Communist Party defeated nationalists and came to power in 1949. Mao invited Uighur leader Ehmetjankasimi at the time to the first meeting of the National Advisory Board, stating that “your long-standing struggle is part of our democratic revolutionary movement across the Chinese people.” rice field. However, Kasimi died in a plane crash on his way to the meeting.

Despite Mao’s approval, this period of history has always been discussed by Chinese scholars, Brophy said, and attitudes are shifting more and more hostile.

Another element of the story emerged after a series of knives and bombings in 2013-14 by Uighur militants who were angry at the harsh treatment by the authorities.

The Uighur movement temporarily opened up the Second East Turkestan Republic in 1944, a nominally independent state in the northern part of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It was backed by the Soviet Union, which had true control.

Recently leaked 2017 document, one of the informally given mountains Uighur Court It shows that the Communist Party working group dealing with the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, held in the United Kingdom last September, criticized the elements of the uprising.

“The Three District Revolution is part of the democratic revolution of our people, but there were serious mistakes in the early stages,” the notice said.

Condemning the Soviet Union’s intervention, separatists invaded the revolutionary class, saying that they “stealed initiative, established a divisional regime, and made serious mistakes in ethnic division.”

The document still states that Kasimi should be respected for his role in history.

However, CGTN Documentary picks out a photo of Kasimi wearing a medal that is a symbol of the Second East Turkestan Republic. “It shouldn’t appear in this textbook at all,” said Shehide Yusup, art editor at Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Education Publishing Company, in a documentary.

Illustrations from another textbook drawn at the same time show what looks like a nationalist soldier pointing a knife at a Uighur rebel who has spread to the ground.

Both stories are based on Uighur authors’ novels published by government publishers. One of the writers, Zordun Sabir, is a member of the China Writers Association with state support. Kunduz, a former editor of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Newspaper, who uses only one of his names, says the textbook itself was published only after a high level of approval.

When the textbook was reviewed in 2001, the Uighur story received little attention, said Abduweli Ayup, a Uighur linguist who translated some stories into Chinese for review as a graduate student at the time. ..

Stories about nationalists as enemies were not considered controversial. Instead, Uighur editors are worried about foreign stories, said Ayup, an activist currently living in Norway, such as Tolstoy’s story and Hungarian poetry lines.

Another story quoted by CGTN dates back to the Qing dynasty, which ruled China until 1912. Art editor Yusup tells CGTN: It’s all manufactured. Han Chinese soldiers trapped them in a cliff and they died suddenly to protect their hometown. Intended to incite ethnic hatred. “

However, the soldiers were not Han Chinese, but Manchu people who founded the Qing dynasty in 1644. The story text found in CGTN Documentary states so. Meishikan, the leader of Uighur girls, saw the Manchus climbing the mountain and told the girls to roll the rocks. “

The story is based on a local rebellion against the Qing dynasty. A shrine dedicated to seven girls in Uqturpan, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, was partially funded. Epics, articles and dramas about stories are popular.

“It’s shocking for the Chinese government to praise the uprising and consider including the story in textbooks as a crime,” historians said.

China’s bilingual education policy expert at Maryland University, Minglang Zhou, said authorities have increased the amount of Chinese education in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, especially after the ethnic clash in the provincial capital Urumqi in 2009. Said that.

Mr. Zhou emphasized the integration of the nation, which is a departure from the “unified nation with diversity” promoted by its predecessor, Mr. Nishi, the leader of China. “He sees diversity as a threat to a unified nation.”

Kunduz lamented that his son, who grew up in Urumqi, studied Chinese rather than Uighur. “They want to assimilate us, they want us to disappear,” she said from Sweden, where she currently lives.

To date, her son speaks Chinese better than Uighurs.